Modélisation biomécanique du mouvement : vers un outil d'évaluation pour l'instrumentation en orthopédie

  • Lepoutre Jean-Phlippe


    This work deals with a new approach in the evaluation of human musculoskeletal system disorders and diseases using biomechanical parameters {kinematics and joint moments). As a first step, a parallel of literature data and podiatry diagnosis in gait analysis enable to identified biomechanical parameters involved in developing pathology: low back pain, coxalgia and knee pain. Then, from experimental measurements (motion analysis system VICON and treadmill ADAL) static, kinematic and dynamic aspects of motor activity (anthropometries multibody system of the lower limb) of symptomatic subjects have highlighted the defects of articular movement (pathomechanical models) in correlation with physiology and relevance of biomechanical parameters to describe disorder. The gait analysis in two conditions: shod and shod with foot orthoses, show the impact of joint misalignment on articular contact load-distribution, which lead to destroy cartilage (lumbar osteoarthritis hip osteoarthritis, knee osteoarthritis). Finally, the study of relationships between parameters show the osteoarticular link between abnormal foot motion on the floor and movement dysfunction of the lower limb.