In Vitro Evaluation of Different Irrigation Protocols on Intracanal Smear Layer Removal in Teeth with or without Pre-Endodontic Proximal Wall Restoration

  • Kharouf Naji
  • Pedullà Eugenio
  • La Rosa Giusy Rita Maria
  • Bukiet Frédéric
  • Sauro Salvatore
  • Haikel Youssef
  • Mancino Davide

  • Active irrigation
  • Pre-endodontic restoration
  • Root canal
  • Dentin
  • Smear layer removal


To investigate the influence of pre-endodontic coronal wall restoration on smear layer removal during different root canal irrigation strategies, single-root premolars were prepared with a mesio-occlusal cavity. Half were left untreated (G1), while the mesial walls of the remaining half were reconstructed using a resin composite (G2). The specimens were divided into control (ctrl) groups, which used the conventional needle irrigation method, and four experimental subgroups according to irrigation strategy: Sonic activation using the Endoactivator, sonic activation using the EQ-S, mechanical activation using the XP-Endo finisher, and ultrasonic activation using the EndoUltra. Smear layer removal was assessed through SEM and the results were statistically analyzed. At the coronal and middle thirds, no significant difference (p > 0.05) was detected for G1 and G2, except for the control subgroups (G1ctrl vs G2 ctrl) at the middle third. At the apical third, the smear layer removal was significantly greater for G2 than G1. In G1, both at the middle and apical level, EQ-S and EndoUltra showed greater smear layer removal (p < 0.05) compared to the others G1 subgroups. In G2, at the apical level, the EQ-S and EndoUltra were the most effective in smear layer removal. Pre-endodontic coronal wall restoration may improve the smear layer removal during root canal irrigation.