Participation in physical and sports activities ‘PSA’ is a health factor. Sport is a form of physical activity ‘PA’ that helps to reach the recommended amount of PA per day. PSA promotions plans are launched by European states. However, sport participation also involves significant risks. Some sports injuries provoke long-term health negative outcomes. Promotion of sport participation faces a paradox. As a mean of healthy state, it implies some risks linked to the modalities of participation. To know the extent of these effects, epidemiological studies are needed. They help to determine adolescents’ subgroups that play sports, and among them, those at greater risk of injury. In France, previous studies are representative of the national population. However, no study estimated sport participation and injury risks factors while focusing on adolescent. Moreover, international findings showed that variation of results exists as function of the life environment of participants. We performed epidemiological retrospectives studies among the adolescent population of a specific French locality: the Bouches-du-Rhône. This one is characterized by a high-level of poverty and inequalities. We made the hypothesis, that results differ compared to those obtained at the national level. In addition of objectives measures of participation and injuries, we asked adolescents about the experiences that they like to live in their favorite sport. This knowledge could be useful to the development of promotion initiatives that are adapted to the tastes of this population. The questioning was inspired by the theory of experience, that suggest the importance of pleasure to understand people’s futures behaviors. We measured retrospective reports of pleasure in three characteristics forms of modern sports: risk-taking, progress and competition. Studies were conducted in schools and followed a sample design that respected the proportion of schools in priority education networks, and outside. Three analysis axes were performed. The first have had the purpose to measure the trends in sport participation between 2001 and 2015. The second have had the purpose to identify adolescents the most at risk of injuries while adding a variable never used in population-studies, the level of competition. The third axe attempted to validate our retrospective reports of pleasure scale and to identify different profiles of participants. Results shows a decline in sport participation, a greater risk of injury from the regional level of competition and an important variation of reported pleasure in experiences of competition and risk-taking. This thesis pointed out the need to develop studies with a narrower geographical scale that the national one. Results differs and could help to the development of local sports policies. In terms of promotion, girls with low socioeconomic status must be a priority. About prevention, an additional effort should be done from the regional level of competition, regardless sports activities.