Three-dimensional biometrics using weight-bearing imaging shows relationship between knee and hindfoot axial alignment

  • Dufrénot Maryama
  • Dagneaux Louis
  • Fernando Celine
  • Chabrand Patrick
  • Ollivier Matthieu
  • Lintz François

  • 3D biometrics
  • Foot Ankle Offset
  • Hindfoot alignment
  • Hip
  • Knee alignment
  • Weight bearing CT


Background: Existence of a relationship between knee and hindfoot alignments is commonly accepted, but not clearly proven. While studied in the coronal plane using 2D imaging, axial alignment has not been studied yet, likely requiring 3D measurements. We aimed to investigate how knee and hindfoot rotational alignments are related using 3D biometrics and modern 3D weight-bearing technologies. Hypothesis: Hindfoot alignment is correlated with femoral and tibial torsions. Patients and methods: All patients who underwent both weight-bearing CT (WBCT) and low dose biplanar radiographs (LDBR) were selected in this retrospective observational study, resulting in a cohort of 157 lower limbs from 99 patients. Patients' pathologies were stratified in subgroups and those with a history of trauma or surgery affecting lower limb alignment were excluded. Foot Ankle Offset was calculated from WBCT; femoral and tibial torsions and coronal alignment were calculated from LDBR, respectively. Results: Overall, mean Foot Ankle Offset was 1.56% (SD 7.4), mean femoral anteversion was 15.6° (SD 9.5), and mean external tibial torsion was 32.6° (SD 7.6). Moderate negative correlation between Tibial Torsion and Foot Ankle Offset was found in the whole series (rho=-0.23, p=0.003) and for non-pathologic patients (rho=-0.27, p=0.01). Linear models to estimate Tibial Torsion with Foot Ankle Offset and conversely were found, with a low adjusted R2 (3%