PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to compare alignment parameters between patients undergoing high tibial osteotomy (HTO) for knee osteoarthritis (OA) and non-arthritic controls. METHODS: Pre-operative computed tomography images from 194 patients undergoing HTO for medial knee OA and 118 non-arthritic controls were utilized. All patients had varus knee alignment (mean age: 57 ± 11 years; 45% female). The hip-knee-ankle (HKA) angle, mechanical lateral distal femoral angle (mLDFA), medial proximal tibial angle (MPTA) and non-weight-bearing joint line convergence angle (nwJLCA) were compared between "control group" and "HTO group". Femoral and tibial phenotypes were also assessed and compared between groups. Variables found on univariate analysis to be different between the groups were entered into a binary logistic regression model. RESULTS: The mean age was lower (Δ = 4 ± 6 years, p = 0.024), body mass index (BMI) was higher (Δ = 1.1 ± 2.8 kg/m(2), p = 0.032) and there were more females (Δ = 14%, p = 0.020) in the HTO group. The HTO group had more overall varus (7° ± 4.7° vs 4.8° ± 1.3°, p \textless 0.001). There was a significant difference in the mean mLDFA between the two groups with the HTO group having more femoral varus (88.7 ± 3.2° vs 87.3 ± 1.8°, p \textless 0.001). MPTA was similar between the groups (p = 0.881). Age was found to be a strong determinant for femoral varus (p = 0.03). CONCLUSION: Patients undergoing HTO for medial knee OA have more femoral varus compared to non-arthritic controls while tibial morphology was similar. This will be an important consideration in pre-operating planning for realignment osteotomy in patients presenting with medial knee OA and warrants further investigation. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: III, retrospective comparative study.