Comparison of Three Physical—Cognitive Training Programs in Healthy Older Adults: A Study Protocol for a Monocentric Randomized Trial

  • Torre Marta Maria
  • Langeard Antoine
  • Hugues Nicolas
  • Laurin Jérôme
  • Temprado Jean-Jacques

  • Nordic walking
  • Aging
  • Cognition
  • Cognitive-motor training
  • Exergames


Combining aerobic, coordination and cognitive training allows for more improved physical and cognitive performance than when performed separately. A Nordic walking (NW) and two cognitive-motor circuit training programs (CT-c and CT-fit) are compared. CT-c and CT-fit stimulate cognition differently: CT-c, is through conventional complex coordination training performed in single and dual-task conditions; CT-fit, incorporates it into complex goal-directed actions, implemented by fitness gaming technology The aim is to determine whether CT-fit brings additional benefits to cognition compared to more traditional training. Forty-five healthy independent living community dwellers participants (65–80 years) will be included after a general medical examination. The main exclusion criteria are signs of cognitive impairments (Mini–Mental State Examination < 26/30) and physical impairments. Pre and post-tests will be performed to assess: cognitive functions (Montreal Cognitive Assessment; Trail Making Test; Stroop task, working memory test, Rey Complex Figure copy task, Oral Trail Making Test, and dual-task); motor fitness (Bipedal and unipedal balance test, gait assessments, Time Up and Go, chair sit and reach test and four-square stepping test); and physical fitness (10 m incremental shuttle walking test, maximal handgrip force, Timed-Stands test). Incorporating cognitive demands into complex, goal-directed actions using fitness gaming technology should be the best solution to optimize training benefits.