A Three-Photo-Detector Optical Sensor Accurately Localizes a Mobile Robot Indoors by Using Two Infrared Light-Emitting Diodes

  • Bernardes Evandro
  • Viollet Stéphane
  • Raharijaona Thibaut


Indoor positioning systems are facing to the demand of large-scale industrial applications in mobile robotics. It is still challenging to create an indoor positioning system that is easily embeddable, accurate, robust and power efficient. We constructed an easily embeddable, low-power optical sensor named InLock without lens to localize a mobile robot indoors moving at 0.20 m/s with an accuracy inferior to 10cm for the position and 0.1rad for the heading by using only three photo-detectors (PDs) and two infrared Light-Emitting Diodes (LEDs). (i) We modelled the optical sensor based on only three photo-detectors and two infrared LEDs by taking into account radiometric properties. (ii) We constructed the optical sensor by optimizing the geometry of the beacon and the receiver. (iii) We implemented and validated online estimation algorithms for an operating range at a height up to 3m by using an extended Kalman filter and a complementary filter. Our results showed that modelling the optical sensor so that it takes into account radiometric properties and it optimizes the geometry of the beacon can enhance the accuracy of the indoor positioning system. INDEX TERMS Indoor positioning system, infrared light communication, LED, complementary filter, Kalman filter, robot's localization.