Arthroplasty is a surgical procedure to restore the function of the joint of patient suffering from knee osteoarthritis. However, postoperative functional deficits are reported even after a rehabilitation program. In order to determine the origin of functional deficits of patient suffering from knee osteoarthritis and total knee arthroplasty, we developed a rodent model including a chemically-induced-osteoarthritis and designed a knee prosthesis (Ti6Al4V/PEEK) biomechanically and anatomically adapted to rat knee joint. Dynamic Weight-Bearing, gait kinematics, H-reflex from vastus medialis muscle and activities from metabosensitive III and IV afferent fibers in femoral nerve were assessed at 1 and 3 months post-surgery. Results indicate that knee osteoarthritis altered considerably the responses of afferent fibers to their known activators (i.e., lactic acid and potassium chloride) and consequently their ability to modulate the spinal sensorimotor loop, although, paradoxically, motor deficits seemed relatively light. On the contrary, results indicate that, after the total knee arthroplasty, the afferent responses and the sensorimotor function were slightly altered but that motor deficits were more severe. We conclude that neural changes attested by the recovery of the metabosensitive afferent activity and the sensorimotor loop were induced when a total knee replacement was performed and that these changes may disrupt or delay the locomotor recovery.