Introduction: Previous works have shown that human pulp fibroblasts synthetize all complement components. Local complement activation in the dental pulp is known to be involved in inflammation and regeneration and also in pathogen destruction through membrane attack complex formation. Bacterial elimination by complement-mediated phagocytosis implies microorganism opsonization with the complement C3b protein, which is recognized by specific phagocytic cell CR1 receptors for subsequent intracellular destruction. This work was designed to find out whether pulp fibroblasts produce C3b and check its subsequent implication in bacteria phagocytosis. Methods: The expression of C3b was investigated in carious and healthy human pulp tissues. To simulate a bacterial infection in vitro, cultured human pulp fibroblasts were stimulated with lipoteichoic acid, and C3b secretion was quantified by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. C3b fixation on bacteria (opsonization) and the inflam-matory THP-1 cell complement receptor 1 was studied by immunofluorescence. A gentamycin protection assay was used to check the implication of C3b secretion by fibroblasts in bacteria phagocytosis. Results: Pulp cells constitutively express C3b in vivo, and cultured pulp fibroblasts produce C3b. We observed a fixation of this C3b protein on the bacterial surface (opsonization) and the THP-1 CR1 receptor. This recognition leads to a significant increase in bacteria phagocytosis. Conclusions: These results showed that pulp fibro-blasts mediate the process of phagocytosis by producing the complement C3b protein and opsonizing bacteria. This highlights a significant role of fibroblasts in the dental pulp local regulation of inflammation.