How can video feedback be used in physical education to support novice learning in gymnastics? Effects on motor learning, self-assessment and motivation

  • Potdevin F.
  • Vors Olivier
  • Huchez A.
  • Lamour M.
  • Davids K.
  • Schnitzler C.

  • Eedback
  • Pedagogy
  • Video-based technology
  • Learning
  • Self-regulation

ART

Background: Much of the existing research concerning the use of video feedback (VFB) to enhance motor learning has been undertaken under strictly controlled experimental conditions. Few studies have sought to explore the impact of VFB on the skill learning experience of the students in a structured, school-based physical education (PE) setting. Most of those studies have only used qualitative approaches to implicate the potential value of VFB to enhance skill acquisition, students’ engagement or self-assessment ability. Using a quantitative approach, the aim of this study was to investigate effects of using VFB on motor skill acquisition, self-assessment ability and motivation in a school-based learning environment (structured PE programme) with novice children learning a gymnastic skill. Method: Two French classes of beginners took part in a typical five-week learning programme in gymnastics. During each of the five, weekly lessons participants carried out the same warm-up routine and exercises. The experimental group (10 girls – 8 boys, 12.4 ± 0.5 years) received VFB intermittently when learning a front handstand to flat back landing. VFB was given after every five attempts, combined with self-assessment and verbal instructions from the teacher. The control group (12 girls – 13 boys, 12.6 ± 0.4 years) received exactly the same training but was not given VFB. In order to assess progress in motor skills, the arm-trunk angle (hand-shoulder-hip) was measured in the sagittal plane just as the hips formed a vertical line with the shoulders. Motivation was assessed using the Situational Motivation Scale questionnaire (Guay, F., R. J. Vallerand, and C. Blanchard. 2000. “On the Assessment of Situational Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation: The Situational Motivation Scale (SIMS).” Motivation and Emotion 24 (3): 175–213), and self-assessment ability was measured by self-perception task scores. Results: Statistical analysis of arm-trunk angle values showed significant differences only for the VFB group between the fifth lesson and all other lessons. Between lessons 4 and 5, the arm-trunk angle value increased significantly from 146.6 ± 16.9 degrees to 161.2 ± 14.2 degrees (p < .001; ES = 0.94). Self-assessment scores improved significantly for the VFB group between lesson 1 and lesson 2 (p < 0.01, ES = 1.79) and between lesson 4 to lesson 5 (p < .01, ES = 0.94). Amotivation decreased significantly for the VFB group between lesson 1 and lesson 5 (3.06 ± 1.42 vs. 2.12 ± 0.62, p < .001, ES = −0.89). Discussion/conclusion: Our quantitative data, identifying key movement changes as a function of experience in a structured PE programme, were congruent with outcomes of previous qualitative research supporting the role of VFB. This study highlights the potential relevance of using VFB in fostering motor learning, motivation and self-assessment during a PE programme with young children. Future pedagogical research is needed to examine the ways students could use VFB technology for greater self-regulation, with the potential to deliver appropriate movement feedback, based on different levels of experience in students.