Tricalcium Silicate Capping Materials Modulate Pulp Healing and Inflammatory Activity In Vitro

  • Giraud Thomas
  • Jeanneau Charlotte
  • Bergmann Madison
  • Laurent Patrick
  • About Imad

  • Pulp capping materials
  • Pulp healing
  • Pulp inflammation
  • Tricalcium silicates


Introduction: On stimulation by lipoteichoic acid or by a physical injury, fibroblasts have been shown to play a major role in the initiation of the pulp inflammatory reaction and healing through secretion of complement proteins and growth factors. The application of direct pulp-capping materials on these cells may interfere with the inflammatory and the healing processes within the pulp's inextensible environment. This work was designed to study in vitro the effects of silicate-based materials on pulp fibroblast modulation of the initial steps of pulp inflammation and healing. Methods: The effects of Biodentine, TheraCal, and Xeno III eluates were studied on lipoteichoic acid-stimulated and physically injured fibroblasts. Cytokine secretion (interleukin 6, vascular endothelial growth factor, fibroblast growth factor-2, and transforming growth factor-beta 1) was quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Inflammatory THP-1 adhesion to endothelial cells and their migration and activation were studied in vitro. Human pulp fibroblast proliferation was investigated with the MTT test, and their migration to the injury site was studied with the scratch healing assay. Results: Interleukin 6 and vascular endothelial growth factor secretion increased with all materials but to a lesser extent with Biodentine. Fibroblast growth factor-2 and transforming growth factor-beta 1 secretion was significantly higher with Biodentine than with all other materials. THP-1 cell adhesion to endothelial cells and their activation were reduced by Biodentine and TheraCal. However, their migration decreased only with Biodentine. Fibroblast proliferation significantly increased with Biodentine but significantly decreased with Xeno III after day 6. Finally, only Biodentine induced fibroblast migration to the injury site in the scratch assay. Conclusions: These results confirm that pulp-capping materials affect the early steps of pulp inflammation and healing. They show that Biodentine had the highest pulp healing and anti-inflammatory potential when compared with the resin-containing materials. This highlights the interest of the material choice for direct pulp-capping.