Nowadays, additive manufacturing processes greatly simplify the production of openwork workpiece providing new opportunities for workpieces design. Based on Nature knowledge, a new bio-inspired workpiece structural optimization approach is presented in this paper. This approach is derived from bones structure. The aim of this method is to reduce the workpiece weight maintaining an acceptable resistance. Like in bones, the porosity of the part to optimize was controlled by a bio-inspired method as function of the local stress field. Shape, size and orientation of the porosities were derived from bone structure; two main strategies were used: one inspired of avian species and other inspired of terrestrial mammalian. Subsequently, to validate this method, an experimental test was carried out for comparing a topological optimization and the proposed bio-inspired designs. This test was conducted on a beam part in 2.5D subjected to a static three-point bending with 65% of density. Three beams were manufactured by 3D metal printing: two bio-inspired beams (terrestrial mammalian and avian species) and the last designed using a topological optimization method. Experimental test results demonstrated the usefulness of the proposed method. This bio-inspired structural optimization approach opens up new prospects in design of openwork workpiece.