Sodium Hypochlorite Accident: A Systematic Review

  • Guivarc'H Maud
  • Ordioni Ugo
  • Ahmed Hany Mohamed Aly
  • Cohen Stephen
  • Catherine Jean-Hugues
  • Bukiet Frederic


Introduction: Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCI) extrusion beyond the apex, also known as ``a hypochlorite accident,'' is a well-known complication that seldom occurs during root canal therapy. These ``accidents'' have been the subject of several case reports published over the years. Until now, no publication has addressed the global synthesis of the general and clinical data related to NaOCl extrusion. The main purpose of this article was to conduct a systematic review of previously published case reports to identify, synthesize, and present a critical analysis of the available data. A second purpose was to propose a standardized presentation of reporting data concerning NaOCI extrusions to refine and develop guidelines that should be used in further case report series. Methods: A review of clinical cases reporting NaOCI accidents was conducted in June 2016 using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses checklist; it combined an electronic search of the PubMed database and an extensive manual search. Results: Forty full-text articles corresponding to 52 case reports published between 1974 and 2015 were selected. Four main categories of data were highlighted: general and clinical information, clinical signs and symptoms of NaOCI extrusions, management of NaOCI extrusions, and healing and prognosis. Overall, up to now, clinical cases were reported in a very unsystematic manner, and some relevant information was missing. Conclusions: A better understanding of the potential causes, management, and prognosis of NaOCI accidents requires a standardization of reported data; this study proposes a template that can fulfill this objective.