The femoral calcar is a dense internal septum reaching from the femoral neck to the distal part of the lesser trochanter. Our study aimed at providing an exhaustive radio-anatomical description of this structure. One hundred pelvic computed tomography examinations were retrospectively selected to bilaterally evaluate the shape, dimensions, and density of the femoral calcar. Then, its relation to the femoral cavity was assessed by recording the dimensions of the medullary canal at the level of the greatest length of the spur. The femoral calcar exhibited a variable shape classified as ridge-type 17% (34/200), spur-type 66.5% (133/200), and septum-type 16.5% (33/200). Its mean dimensions were: height - 33.03 mm (20-46), length - 9.94 mm (5-16), and thickness = 2.71 mm (1-4). These dimensions were positively correlated to the height and weight of the individuals (P < 0.001) and were higher in males (P < 0.001). Its mean density was 788.5 Hounsfield units (530-1,200). The longest oblique and anteroposterior diameters of the femoral cavity were respectively 38.74 mm (28-51) and 22.04 mm (17-27). The femoral cavity dimensions were positively correlated to the height and weight of the individuals (P < 0.001), to the femoral calcar dimensions (P < 0.001) and were higher in males (P < 0.001). The femoral calcar was constantly identified as a vertical plate of compact bone exhibiting a consistent anatomical pattern, which suggests a significant mechanical function within the upper femur. Our results may lead to a greater understanding of the hip fracture patterns and to alternative designs for hip arthroplasties. Clin. Anat. 24:886-892, 2011. (C) 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.