Long-Term Effects of Botulinum Toxin Complex Type A Injection on Mechano-and Metabo-Sensitive Afferent Fibers Originating from Gastrocnemius Muscle

  • Caron Guillaume
  • Marqueste Tanguy
  • Decherchi Patrick

  • INFLAMMATORY MEDIATORS
  • EXERCISE PRESSOR REFLEX
  • GROUP-III
  • NERVE-FIBERS
  • GROUP-IV MUSCLE
  • TIBIALIS-ANTERIOR MUSCLE
  • BETA-ADRENERGIC-RECEPTOR
  • RAT SKELETAL-MUSCLES
  • NEUROTOXIN TYPE-A
  • INTERSTITIAL POTASSIUM

ART

The aim of the present study was to investigate long term effects of motor denervation by botulinum toxin complex type A (BoNT/A) from Clostridium Botulinum, on the afferent fibers originating from the gastrocnemius muscle of rats. Animals were divided in 2 experimental groups: 1) untreated animals acting as control and 2) treated animals in which the toxin was injected in the left muscle, the latter being itself divided into 3 subgroups according to their locomotor recovery with the help of a test based on footprint measurements of walking rats: i) no recovery (B0), ii) 50% recovery (B50) and iii) full recovery (B100). Then, muscle properties , metabosensitive afferent fiber responses to potassium chloride (KCl) and lactic acid injections and Electrically-Induced Fatigue (EIF), and mechanosensitive responses to tendon vibrations were measured. At the end of the experiment, rats were killed and the toxin injected muscles were weighted. After toxin injection, we observed a complete paralysis associated to a loss of force to muscle stimulation and a significant muscle atrophy, and a return to baseline when the animals recover. The response to fatigue was only decreased in the B0 group. The responses to KCl injections were only altered in the B100 groups while responses to lactic acid were altered in the 3 injected groups. Finally, our results indicated that neurotoxin altered the biphasic pattern of response of the mechanosensitive fiber to tendon vibrations in the B0 and B50 groups. These results indicated that neurotoxin injection induces muscle afferent activity alterations that persist and even worsen when the muscle has recovered his motor activity.