Background The French peer-reviewed journal Revue d’Orthopédie founded on 1st January 1890 extended its scope in 2009 by creating the English-language, online-only, indexed journal Orthopaedics & Traumatology: Surgery & Research (OTSR). Bibliometric data help authors and readers assess the citation potential of articles published in a given journal. We found no bibliometrics for the first 10 years of OTSR. The objectives of this bibliometric study were to identify (i) the 100 most-cited OTSR articles and (ii) the specialties or article types most often involved in citations. Methods The Scopus database was used to determine the citation rates of the 2158 articles published in OTSR during the journal's first 10 years. A bibliometric analysis was performed on the 100 most-cited articles. Results Mean time since publication of the 100 most-cited articles was 6.60 ± 1.66 years (range: 2–10 years) and mean number of citations per article was 49.59 ± 24.16 (range: 30–169). Mean number of citations per year was 7.75 ± 3.26 (range: 4–18.78) and mean number per author was 5.52 ± 3.14 (range: 1–21). The first author was French in 89/100 cases. Of the 100 articles, 56 were based on a multi-centre study and 21 on an international study. Finally, 22/100 articles reported studies sponsored by a scientific society. Discussion The 100 articles identified in this study deserve to be viewed as influential. The number of citations will continue to rise, thereby amplifying the impact of OTSR on worldwide research in orthopaedic surgery. Level of evidence IV, systematic retrospective analysis.